Question 9

The four main business models:

Four main business models in the e-commerce perspective these are business to business B2B  Business to consumer B2C , consumer to business C2C and consumer –to –consumer C2C




The business to business model is where a company sells supplies to another business. An example would be a manufacture of goods required in the production of a product.




The business to consumer model is the most common type that consumers are aware of these are retail stores and outlets. Essentially, it is a company that sells goods and services directly to the consumer.




The consumer to business model is far more recent and is where the consumer creates value in which a business consumes. An example of this is when a consumer creates an opportunity, based on some kind of fee, to market their product on the consumer’s blog. Amazon partakes in this a lot, where review writers market the books they write about and allow the reader to click on a link to purchase the item directly from amazon this model forms the basis for affiliated marketing

The final model is consumer to consumer, which has become more and more popular. This is where consumers create value for other consumers to consume. Examples of this model are online auction sites like EBay. To add on this OLX and gumtree have become synonymous to e-commerce in south Africa.





Question 7

The internet has drastically changed the way that young adults interact with the outside world.


They gain access to in-depth knowledge, tools to express their creativity, and from people all around the world.


Yet along with offering a fascinating new way to connect with the world but with that come risks of using the internet:


  • Cyberbullying


  • Exposure to inappropriate material


  • Online predators and


  • Revealing too much personal information of their own.


Learning to recognise the warning signs of these risks will allow trusted adults to intervene and lessen the potential negative impacts.


By acting as a resource parents and guardians can help to make the usage of the internet less risky for their children. As a parent or guardian, you should be well informed about the current affairs to help understand what your children might be exposed to with the usage of internet and social media.


Social networking and various media platforms with usage of webcams and blogging do have protective measures that can be put in place to ensure safe usage and to avoid exposure of personal details and information, and so parents and young adults should just familiarise themselves with using those safe measures.


Learning the basics of internet safety


Students use a wide variety of online internet services and each of these however can experience different safety concerns. However, there are some basic tips you can learn to employ to enjoy safe internet usage:


  • Keep the computer device in a highly populated area where people can keep an eye on you and your activities.


  • Employ safety restrictions to selected online areas and time limits.


  • The monitoring of all internet accessed mobile devices and personal computers.


  • Study the online habits of your children and check their browsing history from time to time.


  • Teach your children to be cautious of their online movements and not connect with strangers who might later endanger their lives.


  • Continuously engage with your children so that they can open up about their online movements and remind them that safety is priority number one.



Question 6


What is digital socialization and the impact of social media




6.1) digital socialization refers to the way people communicate and what they use to do so. It is the customers, quirks and language unique to a culture the internet involves millions of people from various countries as well as backgrounds and has developed their own cultural quirks all on its own.


Facebook has more than 800 million active users in 2012. The micro-blogging platform twitter has 100 million, while the business communication network LinkedIn claims 64 number of people worldwide. Many American users consider internet socializing as having a positive impact.










Result of digital socialization


Our world changes and it changes constantly and also with new technology as well as media platforms forming and it is easy to lose sight of your ethics having social media as a career it is easy to put on a persona that is not a true reflection of who you are. Having such a huge following on social media it is important for these public figures to or media content creators to grapple with ethical issues as well.

Question 5

Digital Bill of Rights 
A digital bill of rights is a list of the most important rights to the citizen of a country. The purpose is to protect those digital rights against infringement from hackers and public officials and citizens.

  1. Life– Everyone has the right to life
  2. Privacy– Everyone has the right to privacy
  3. Freedom of religion ,belief and opinion– everyone has the right to freedom of conscience,religion,thought,belief and opinion.
  4. citizenship– Everyone has the right to digital citizenship.
  5. Access to court– Everyone has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved by the application of law decided in a fair public hearing before a court or, where appropriate, another independent and impartial tribunal or forum.
  6. Education– Everyone has the right to basic education
  7. Access to courts- Everyone has the right to any dispute that can resolved in court
  8. Housing-Everyone has the right to adequate housing
  9. Access to information- everyone has the right to any information of the state.
  10. Freedom of Associate-Everyone has the right to freedom of association


Links of digital rights 


Question 4

Inappropriate behavior can cause a lot of problems regarding one’s reputation. It is very important for one to maintain a clean and good reputation on social media. Inappropriate behavior especially in South African can cause massive destruction to one’s life as we all know ‘Black Twitter’. ‘Black Twitter’ is the biggest social media platform in South African and it is also known for the saying ‘No Chill in Mzanzi’ as it always attacks the individuals on social media that are posting things that can be said to be “inappropriate behavior”. We have a very well-known incident that took place on Facebook this year that escalated to ‘Black Twitter’. It was trending all over social media with the hashtag ‘SesethuVideo’. This all started when a girl named Sesethu, (bear in mind that she is 14 years old) sent a porn video to her boyfriend. No one knows if the video was leaked by mistake or if it was intentionally added by the girl’s boyfriend. This video was seen in Facebook and later trended everywhere. Even in ‘Whatsapp’, the video was escalating around. We can all imagine what consequences she went through… Even though a bit of the majority of people were consoling her, I don’t think it will help anyone. For anyone to rise up from such a big fall, it takes a lot. Who knows, maybe she ended her life because we never heard anything about what happened to her after that. We also have celebrities fighting against each other on social media. Now this comes to be very entertaining to their fans but it can also bring a bad image to the celebrities which they done need because they are living in the ‘lime light’. Incidents also happen where the public gets into what is called to be a “war’ on social media with other celebrities. This, most of the time ends way better than all the other inappropriate behaviours’ consequences. Inappropriate behaviour can also cause you not getting a job one day. It’s like a criminal record… It stays with you forever, people will always remember you of the bad thing you once did in your life, that’s how the world we live in is now. Although this gives one a lot of fame, it’s not really a great fame. A lot of recruitment companies such as DAV look for candidates on social media like Facebook these days because not a lot of people are on LinkedIn or do update their LinkedIn accounts. You can imagine, social media is a great background check. You can see the real person how they are behind closed doors. So, it is very important for one to not maintain an inappropriate behaviour on social media because it affects one’s reputation a lot. And also, the consequences are just unnecessary things that could have been avoided a long time ago. ‘Black Twitter’ has no chill so I recommend one to stay away from any inappropriate behaviour on social media that can “awoke” them.









Nudity is always inappropriate. The historic photo taken by photographer Nick Ut of a nine-year-old girl fleeing a napalm attack during the Vietnamese war is undoubtedly one of the most important photos of all time.


Referred to as the Napalm-Girl, the photo published by the New York Times in June 1972, the photo played a large role in altering the public’s view on the Vietnamese war.


The photo was a blatant disregard and direct violation of the right of another human being, as shown in the photo the then nine-year-old girl had no clothing items whatsoever on her body and she is badly exposed.


The violation of another human being’s rights is a criminal offence and the situation should have been dealt with accordingly to bring justice for the girl’s peace of mind, but considering that the situation had occurred during the war there was very little that could have been done about it.


The release of a picture of that calibre onto the media could have caused some serious damage to the girl emotionally and psychologically and therefore picture like that one should not be release onto the media unless if it’s by mutual consent.


To ensure the safety and comfort of people in future situations like this one, the governments must enforce some strict rules to aid situations like this and to conquer the unlawful release of nude pictures onto the internet.



Digital Accesss and Divide

  • Digital Law

Electronic responsibility for actions and deeds


  • Digital Etiquette

Electronic standards of conduct procedure


  • Digital Commerce

Electronic buying and selling of goods


  • Digital Access

Full electronic participation in society


  • Digital Security

Electronic precautions to guarantee safety


  • Digital Rights And Responsibilities

Those freedoms extended to everyone in a digital world


  • Digital Health And Wellness

Physical and psychological wellbeing in a digital world


Q.1.2)Digital divide refers to the gap between people’s race, age or gender and regions that have access to the current net, and those that don’t or have restricted access. This technology can include the telephone, television,computer and the net.

  1. )Socio-economic divide :The first issue surrounding access is that of the ability to access, in general, data and information through the use of digital devices. This lack of access is known as the digital divide, or sometimes referred to those that have and those that have not.This is relevant in the case of internet use, where nations vary widely in the number or ratio of the public with access to the internet.
  2. A divide in infrastructure : Continuing along the theme of developing and developed countries lies the issue of infrastructure. Developed countries have a far greater penetration appropriate and up to date infrastructure of developing countries .Quite simply, it is the infrastructure of developing countries that often impedes the broad range of access, in addition to socio – economic factors. A prime example is that of South Africa’s poor electricity infrastructure that is under such extreme pressure that rolling blackouts are experienced.
  3. A divide in content :According to Dutton 2004, the websites are in English. Although this has changed substantially, the fact of matter remains that English dominates the web.
  4. A gender divide :The internet gender gap is notable in developing countries, with very real consequences to the girls and women of those communities. People derive huge benefit through the use of and access to the internet.. This include economic and educational opportunities. Furthermore, by providing women to ICT’s , nations are better able to empower women to provide equitable development.
  • A skill divide :Having the skills to operate a computer is probably the biggest opportunity, to the adoption, or nor, of technology for development. Although accessibility is increasing, skills are not necessarily conforming at the same rate of increase. This is perhaps a greater issue than that of physical access, as those that are disadvantaged due to socio-economic factors have less exposure to digital technology, thereby impending their skills acquisition in the job market. However, it should be noted that despite socioeconomic factors playing a role in the level of skills, it is not all bound to social strata but also to personal factors.
  • 1.3pp

Digital Citizenship is a concept which helps teachers, technology leaders and parents to understand what students/children/technology users should know to use technology appropriately. Digital Citizenship is more than just a teaching tool; it is a way to prepare students/technology users for a society full of technology.Digital citizenship is the norms of appropriate,responsible technology use.


Question 2


Define: Identify the problem and plan where to go before starting. Skills include restating or rephrasing the problem, challenging assumptions, gathering facts, and considering the challenge from multiple perspectives.

Discover: This is the exploration stage. Skills include determining where the information is, skimming, scanning, and scouring the information for background filtering, and taking smart notes.

Dream: Dream is a whole-mind process, one that allows us to imagine the solution as it will exist in the future. Skills include generating wishes, exploring possibilities, and imagining best case scenarios.

Design: This is the process of gap analysis, breaking out all the necessary steps to get us from here to there. Skills include having a clear idea of how to do the task, starting with the end in mind and building steps backwards, and writing instructions in small increments that are easy to follow, positive and logical.

Deliver: Putting the plan into action and making the dream into a reality is delivering the solution. There are two components: produce and publish. Skills include identifying the best format for presenting and using that format to present the information or solution to the problem.

Debrief: An opportunity for students to self and peer assess; it’s a chance to look at the final product and the process to determine what was done well and what could have been done differently. Skills include reflecting on the process and the product, acting on the reflections, and internalizing the new learnings and understandings.

The process of Solution Fluency is not a linear one, but a cyclical one. At any stage, learners may need to revisit a step in the process. A teacher needs to guide her students and offer feedback as the students work through the steps.

2.2)No:because you can keep up with what you’ve been doing and always be up to date.

2.3)Use a password keeper,Don’t overshare,Keep a list of accounts,Use privacy settings,You don’t need 12 email addresses,Google yourself,Monitor linking accounts.

Question 3

What Is the Internet of Things?

In case you aren’t familiar with the concept, internet is a general phrase used to refer to Internet-enabled devices (such as “smart” gadgets) that are all connected through a single, remotely accessible network. For example, your smart TV,and refrigerator might all be accessible to control via your personal tablet.

How Business Will Change?

1. You’ll know where everything is at all times.

Currently,most companies rely on bar code tracking systems for inventory management. But when almost all your equipment, devices, and even products are integrated into the same network, inventory management and tracking will become so intuitive you might not even have to think about it. Instantly updating numbers will be at your disposal at all times, and you’ll have the ability to tap into those metrics any time you want.

2. You’ll have to keep track of even more data.

All those interconnected devices will open the floodgates to even more data than you currently track (which is probably a ton). You’ll learn in-depth metrics about your customers and their behaviors, your employees and how they work, and even the gritty details about how your business operates. This is all worthwhile information … but you need to be prepared to handle it, with data analysts and visualization software.

3. Everything will be faster.

With the IoT in place, everything will be faster, since interconnected devices could include everything from traffic lights and cars to public transportation. When that’s the case, you’ll have shorter commute times for yourself and your employees. More important for the impact on your organization, this means faster deliveries. On one hand, this will be a luxury — you’ll get you what you need faster — but it also means customers will expect and demand faster, more efficient service.

4. Energy and production will be cheaper.

Thanks to smart grid coordination,energy will be much cheaper. Not only that, your machines will be able to find new and smoother ways to operate, and your maintenance routines may also become easier. The bottom line is that you’ll expend less money to produce your inventory, and most of your costs will likely decrease.

5. Remote work will become even more feasible.

Thanks to cloud-hosted software and readily portable devices like tablets, remote work is already a solid option for many professional positions. When IoT technology becomes commonplace, and all devices are manageable on one network, it will become even easier to manage everything remotely. Given one tablet and an Internet connection, you may be able to manage an entire production line, or an entire store. Most professionals won’t be prepared to cross this gap immediately, but it will be there as a possibility.

6. Device management may become nightmarishly complex.

There are a few potential downsides to IoT integration. One of the hardest to adapt to will be overall device management. You could have a hard time keeping all your integrated devices updated with the latest software and connected to the network; this will be both expensive and intense in terms of IT needs. Still, the benefits of increased productivity and reduced labor costs should balance this out.

7. Productivity will increase.

As a general rule, your entire business will be able to operate more productively, with lower expenses. The cost of upgrading all your devices may be initially steep, but you’ll end up paying less for staff, and you should be capable of producing more products, thanks to the efficiency challenges your new technologies will have solved.

8. Some industries will disappear or radically change.

Many industries may fundamentally change when a lot becomes mainstream. Some might even become obsolete or completely disappear; for example, the delivery and logistics industry could conceivably become almost completely automated. Others will start to be in higher demand, and still others will become more efficient, and allow for higher profitability and more entry to new entrepreneurs. Pay close attention to how your industry develops, and be prepared for some major changes.

Question 5

Mobile Device Users are responsible for:

  • The security of University information and of the device on which the information is held see Data Access and Storage section for provisions regarding Confidential Information.
  • Storing University information on the Mobile Device only for so long as necessary.
  • Deleting University information from the Mobile Device when no longer required or sooner if required by the University to delete it.
  • ensuring (where possible) the device has up to date Operating system and anti-virus protection complying with this policy and the related policies.



Digital Access and divide



  • Digital Law

             Electronic responsibility for actions and deeds

  • Digital Etiquette

             Electronic standards of conduct procedure

  • Digital Commerce

         Electronic buying and selling of goods

  • Digital Access

        Full electronic participation in society

  • Digital Security

            Electronic precautions to guarantee safety

  • Digital Rights And Responsibilities

            Those freedoms extended to everyone in a digital world

  • Digital Health And Wellness

             Physical and psychological wellbeing in a digital world

  • Digital Communication

          Electronic exchange of information

  • Digital Literacy

Teaching and learning about technology and its uses